The Harvard (UTS) referencing style is based on the Australian Government’s Style Guide for Authors, Editors and Publishers (6th edition, 2002). It is used by the faculties of Arts & Social Sciences; Business; Design, Architecture & Building; Engineering & Information Technology; and Science.

Always bear in mind that the point of referencing is:

* clearly and simply to enable another person (or perhaps even yourself) to relocate the information or item referred to; and
* to acknowledge the works of others that you have used, thus giving credit to them, and avoiding allegations of plagiarism.


When you cite a reference in the text of your document, use the author surname and the year of publication. This is called an in-text reference. For example:

The theory was first propounded in 1970 (Larsen 1971).

If the author name is already in the text immediately in front of the in-text reference, you can use just the year. For example:

Larsen (1971) was the first to propound the theory.

All in-text references must be included in a single list of full references at the end of your document. This list must be arranged alphabetically by author surname. It should begin on a new page, and can be either single or double spaced. If single spaced, when a reference is more than one line long the extra lines are indented by a tab space (this is called a “hanging indent”). The preference for single or double spacing varies across faculties so you should consult your lecturer or faculty assignment writing guide about this.

What each full reference looks like depends on what kind of reference it is (book, journal article, website etc). The links on the left show how different types of references should look in your reference list.


If a reference has two or more authors, use “&” between the last two. If more than three authors, list only the first author in the in-text reference, and abbreviate the others by “et al.” (Latin for “and others”). However, all the authors must be listed in the reference list.

If a reference has no author, use the book title, chapter title or article title instead, both in text and in the reference list. The title should keep the same formatting as it has normally, ie for books it should be in italics, for chapters and articles it should be in single quotes (see next section).

If you are using two or more works by the same author, published in the same year, distinguish them by adding a, b, c etc after the year. For example (Dickinson 1990a) and (Dickinson 1990b).

Sometimes an author can be an organisation such as a government or university department, or a company. In this case treat the name of the organisation as the author surname.


Book titles, journal names and website titles should be in italics.

Chapter titles from books, article titles from a journal or magazine, and theses titles are not in italics but single quotation marks.

All major words in the names of journals, newspapers and magazines should start with a capital letter. In other titles, all words should start with a lower case letter (except the first word and proper nouns).


If you are using a short quote, your in-text reference must give the page number(s) where the quote comes from. Use p. for a single page or pp. for several pages. For example:

It has been suggested that ‘the taxation advantage enjoyed by superannuation funds, relative to private investment in shares, was somewhat neutralised in 1988’ (McGrath & Viney 1997, p. 137).

When making a direct quote of more than about thirty words do not use quotation marks but include the quote as a separate paragraph, indented from the text margin and set in smaller type.

Sometimes a work you are using quotes a work from another author. For example, in a book by Thorne, written in 1994, on page 78 you find a quote from a 1906 paper by Albert Einstein. To cite the work by Einstein you should mention Einstein’s paper in the text and use Thorne as your in-text reference, with page number:

Einstein stated in 1906 that time is relative (Thorne 1994, p. 78).

In your reference list you must have the full reference for Thorne. If you wish, you may also include the reference for Einstein (you can get this from Thorne’s bibliography), but this isn’t necessary because you haven’t actually consulted the Einstein paper directly.