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Referencing using the Harvard (UTS) System

Since it looks like I will be studying at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) for a while, and with a research essay coming up for Journalism Studies, having a handy guide to referencing using the Harvard (UTS) system seems like a good idea.    

This is the full version of  the University of Technology, Sydney’s (UTS) guide to the Harvard referencing sysem, one of the three most commonly used referencing systems for academic writing at UTS. It is available at the UTS: Bell Program Referencing Guide website.    

There is also  a summarised version available at the UTS Library website.    

The Bell Program Referencing Guide  has been prepared in consultation with the UTS Faculties and lists the preferred styles for each Faculty unless otherwise stated. Lecturers/tutors may impose other conditions that would override this general guide and these conditions will be noted in Subject Outlines.    

A brief introduction to the importance of acknowledging sources, plagiarism and referencing provides a basis for the following style guides. Staff and students can also use Endnote bibliographic software to collect, store and organise references.    

This table links you to the referencing system preferred by each Faculty and includes a comprehensive list of both in text citation and reference list formats and examples for each style.

Introduction All Faculties
Harvard (UTS)
In text referencing
Reference List
Adult Education
Design Architecture and Building
Humanities and Social Sciences
Information Technology
Institute for International Studies
APA system
In text referencing
Reference List
Nursing Midwifery & Health
Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) (pdf)
Published by Melbourne University Law Review Association  Inc


The Harvard (UTS) System is straightforward, easy to use and causes minimal disturbance to the text. It allows the reader to see immediately the association between the source and its author and the date of publication. The Harvard style referred to in this guide is a generic style based on the AGPS Style Manual.    

UTS Faculties that use the Harvard (UTS) System are:    

  • Adult Education
  • Design, Architecture and Building
  • Engineering
  • Humanities and Social Sciences
  • Business
  • Information Technology
  • Science
  • Institute for International Studies

Continue to the next section of the Harvard Referencing Guide: In Text Referencing    

In Text Referencing

When you cite a reference in the text of your assignment you should include the author’s surname and year of publication. This procedure can vary depending on whether you have directly quoted or indirectly quoted your source.    

A direct quotation uses the exact words from the source. For a short quote, quotation marks are used to distinguish the original text and the author(s), year and page number are given.    

It has been suggested that ‘the taxation advantage enjoyed by superannuation funds, relative to private investment in shares, was somewhat neutralised in 1988’
(McGrath & Viney 1997, p.137).

When making a direct quote longer than 40 words it is necessary to include the quote as a free-standing block, without quotation marks, single spaced (if the assignment is 1.5 or doubled spaced) and indented 5 spaces on the left margin.    

…demonstrate an overall lack of communication skill and a frequent use of discouraging tactics or strategies. Such findings clearly conflict with a business philosophy….which emphasises the importance of communication… (Macleod-Clark 1984, p.66).    

The use of the 3 ellipsis points (…)indicates that text from the original quote has been omitted. The use of the 4 ellipsis points (….) indicates that the material between the sentences has been omitted. Ellipsis points are used only at the beginning or end of a quotation in order to avoid misinterpretation or to emphasise that the quotation begins or ends mid sentence.    

An indirect quotation paraphrases or summarises in your own words somebody else’s ideas, materials or data. If you refer to a general topic, theory or concept which has been discussed on a number of pages in the source and has not been mentioned on a particular page then you may show the author’s name and year of publication without the page numbers. You can do this in two ways.    

  1. In the first example prominence is given to the information by enclosing the source details in the brackets:

The theory was first propounded in 1970 (Larsen 1971).    

  1. In the second example the source is given prominence as the name of the author is included in the text of the assignment:

Larsen (1971) was the first to propound the theory.    

Continue to the next section of the Harvard (UTS) Referencing Guide: Reference Types    

In text Reference Types

Authors, one and more
Authors with multiple articles or books
Citation of more than one source
Citation as a secondary source
Chapter in an edited book, article or paper
Anonymous works
Personal Communication
Electronic Journals , web sites    

Authors one and more
One work by a single author    

The theory was first propounded in 1970 (Larsen 1971).
Larsen (1971) was the first to propound the theory.    

One work with two or three authors    

It is futile to maintain that the sexes are interchangeable (Moir & Jessel 1991).
Moir and Jessel (1991) claimed that it is futile to maintain that the sexes are interchangeable.    

One work with more than three authors
Cite the name of the first author followed by et al. and the year.    

Roper, et al (1980)
(Roper, et al 1980)    

Authors with multiple articles or books published in the same year
Distinguish the publications from each other by adding a,b,c etc. after the author’s name.    

(Dickinson 1990a)
(Dickinson 1990b).    

Citation of more than one source
Separate the entries by using semi-colons:    

Various authors have looked at the notion of organisational leadership (Ashworth 1985; Macleod-Clark 1984; Wills 1981).    

Citing a secondary source
When you refer to work of authors who have been cited in the work of another and you have not read the original you should reference the secondary source not the original.    

Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck note that in some societies humans are seen as basically evil (Schein 1997, p.20).    

Chapter in an edited book, an article or a paper
Cite the authors of the article or chapter (not the editor, unless the work is that of the editor) and the year.    

(Ross 1999)    

Anonymous works
Use title in italics and year if there is no author. Do not use Anon or Anonymous in your reference    

(Maximum Linux Security 1999)    

Cite as you would a journal article.    

(Macklin 2001)    

If there is no author provide title of newspaper, day month year of publication and page number.    

(Australian Financial Review 15 Jan. 2002, p.15)    

Personal Communication    

This could include letters, interviews, telephone conversations and emails. These communications do not provide data to which others may refer and are therefore not included in the reference list. Follow this example for in text referencing:    

Jones (1989, pers.comm., 6 May) believes that…”    

Electronic journals, web sites
Citing electronic journals, web pages or web sites follows the same principles as for books. However Internet documents often do not contain page numbers. In this instance, use the paragraph number, preceded by the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para. For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers and where neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to direct the reader to the location of the material.    

(Myers 2000, para. 5)
(Beutler 2000, Conclusion section, para.1)

If the author’s name is unknown, cite the web site URL.    


To cite a homepage give the address of the site and the year of the last update.    


Continue to the next section of the Harvard (UTS) Referencing Guide: The Reference List    

The Reference List

All in text references must be included in a single list of references at the end of your assignment. This list must be arranged by the author’s surname in alphabetical order. If a reference has no author, use the title instead, both in text and in the reference list.    

A reference list must provide details which enable the reader to locate each source. For books, for example, these details are Author; Year of Publication; Title; Edition (if relevant); Place of Publication and Publisher.    

Punctuation including spacing, brackets, colons, capitalisation and italics must be used consistently.    

Your reference list should begin on a new page, titled ‘Reference List’ and can be single or double spaced. In single spacing, when an entry exceeds one line, a hanging indent (commonly a tab space) is used in the following line to separate the entries. The preference for single or double spacing varies between Faculties – consult your lecturer about the preferred style for your faculty.    

A list of references or a Bibliography should always accompany an assignment. A Bibliography is a list of sources not necessarily referred to in the text but which might have been used as background material. Your Subject Outlines should specify whether to include a Reference List or a Bibliography in your assignments. A Bibliography is set out in the same way as a Reference List.    

This guide provides you with a number of commonly used Reference List formats and examples.    

Journal Article
Magazine Article
Newspaper Articles
Conference Paper
World Wide Web
Motion Picture & Audiovisual Material
Television and Radio Program    

Continue to the next section of the Harvard (UTS) Referencing Guide: Reference List Formats    

Reference List Formats


Author/s Year, Title, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication.    


Billoski, T.V. 1992, Introduction to Paleontology, 6th edn, Institutional Press, New York.    

Szczepaniak, P.S. & Niedzwiedzinski, M. 2002, E-Commerce and Intelligent Methods, 6th edn, Physica-Verlag, Heidelberg.    

Edited book    

Editor (ed.) Year, Title, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication.    


Luczkovich, J.J. (ed.) 1995, Ecomorphology of Fishes, 6th edn, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.    

Turner, S.P. & Roth, P.A. (eds) 2003, Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Blackwell, Oxford.    

Translated Book    

If you use a 1990 translation of a 1980 work, your reference should show 1990 as the date and the title in English. If, however, you use the 1980 original, your reference should show 1980 as the date and the title should be in the original language as shown below. If you have used both, provide reference details for both books. The translator should come after the title, as follows:    

Author Year, Title in English, trans. name, Publisher, Place of Publication.    


For the translation:    

de Cervantes Saavedra, M. 2003, Don Quixote, trans. E. Grossman, HarperCollins, New York.    

Bourdieu, P. 1990, The Logic of Practice, trans. R. Nice, Polity Press, Cambridge, U.K.    

For the original work:    

Bourdieu, P. 1980, Le Sens Pratique, Gallimard, Paris.    

Book without a Personal Author    

Name of organisation Year, Title, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication.    


Australia Treasury 2002, IT Infrastructure : Statement of Direction 2002 to 2005, Govt Printer, Canberra.    

Australia Treasury 2002, Fuel Tax Inquiry Report, Govt. Printer, Canberra.    

Book with no Author or Editor    

If no author or editor is mentioned the entry starts with the title of the book.    

Title Year, Publisher, Place of publication.    

Maximum Linux security: a hacker’s guide to protecting your Linux server and workstation 1999, Prentice Hall, Hemel Hampstead.    

Chapter in an Edited Book    

Author(s) of chapter Year, ‘Title of Chapter’ in Editor (ed.), Title of book, Publisher, Place of publication, page numbers.    


Coleman, S. 2003, ‘Democracy in an e-connected world’, in R.Davidson (ed.), The E-Connected World: Risks and Opportunities, McGill Queens University Press, Montreal, pp. 125-32.    

Schwartz, M.T. & Billoski, T.V. 1990, ‘Greenhouse hypothesis: effect on dinosaur extinction’, in B.T. Jones & N.V. Lovecraft (eds), Extinction, Barnes and Ellis, New York, pp. 175-89.    

E-book (Online book)    

Online book databases that display the page numbers reference as you would reference a print publication. If no page numbers are visible reference as follows:    

Author(s) Year, Title, Publisher, date viewed, <URL>.    


Dye, C. 1999, Oracle Distributed Systems, O’Reilly, viewed 7 July 2005,<http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com/1565924320/ch02-11274&gt;.    

Hart, J.D. & Leininger, P.W. 1995, The Oxford Companion to American Literature, Oxford University Press, viewed 10 October 2005, <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t123.e0017>   &nbsp;

Journal Article

If the article is retrieved from an online journal database and is also available in print, you can cite your reference as print copy.    

Author Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, volume, issue or part (if applicable), page numbers.    


Seaman, C.B., Mendonca, M.G. & Kim, Y.M. 2003, ‘User interface evaluation’, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 838-51.    

Alvarez, W. & Muller, R.A. 1984, ‘Evidence from crater ages for periodic impacts on the earth’, Nature, vol. 308, pp. 718-20.    

If your article is from the World Wide Web and there are no pages given in the citation cite as follows    

Author Year, ‘Title of article’, Journal, Volume, Issue, Date viewed, <URL>    

  • Title of the article has single quotations
  • The journal name is in italics.
  • Date viewed listed after Volume, Issue, is the date you viewed the website and should be Day Month Year, eg. viewed 1 April 2003.
  • Type the full URL within angle brackets, eg <http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue38/guy/&gt;


Smith, Linda S. 2002, ‘Is this scholarship?’, The Australian Electronic Journal of Nursing Education, vol. 8, no. 1, viewed 6 August 2003, <http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/nhcp/aejne/>   &nbsp;

Magazine Article

The major difference between a magazine and a journal publication is that a magazine is usually issued more frequently (i.e., daily, weekly, monthly). The magazine article can be short and written for a broad audience. Magazines are usually distinguished by the date issued rather than a volume and issue number.    

Cite a magazine article the same as a journal article reference only replace the volume with the issued date.    

Author Year, ‘Article Title’, Magazine, Issued date, Pages    


Gutner, T. 2004, ‘Fashion’, Business Week, 3 August, p. 90    

Trivette, D. 1994, ‘3-D Dinosaur Adventure brings Jurassic age to life’, PC Magazine, March 15, p. 452.    

If your magazine article is from the World Wide Web and there are no pages given in the citation treat as follows    

Author Year, ‘Article title’, Magazine, Issued date (If applicable), Date viewed, <URL>.    


Hollis, M. 2004, ‘Probing the crystal structure of fine art’, Innovation: Built Environment & Manufacturing, June, viewed 2 July 2004, <http://www.cmit.csiro.au/innovation/2004-06/>   &nbsp;

Marieke, G., Powell, A. & Day M. 2004, ‘Improving the quality of metadata in eprint archives’, Ariadne : the Internet Magazine for Librarians and Information Specialists, January, viewed 1 April 2003, <http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue38/guy/>   &nbsp;

Newspaper Article

Cite a newspaper article the same as a journal article reference only replace the volume and issue with the issued date.    

Reporter Year, ‘Article title’, Newspaper (Section), Issued date, Pages.    

  • If the newspaper article is retrieved from an online journal database and is also available in print, cite your reference as print copy.
  • Only use Newspaper Section, eg Good Weekend, if the article is from a section of the newspaper with its own independent page numbering.


Robson, F. 2001, ‘Ski bums’, Sydney Morning Herald (Good Weekend), 14 July, p. 29.    

Peatling, S. & Malkin, B. 2004, ‘Employers face ban on email spying’, Sydney Morning Herald, 31 March, p. 17    

If the newspaper article is from a website and there are no pages given in the citation treat as follows.    

Reporter Year, ‘Article title’, Newspaper, Issued Date, Date viewed, <URL>.    

  • Date viewed listed after Pages, is the date you viewed the website and should be Day Month Year, eg. viewed 1 April 2003.
  • Type the full URL surrounded by angle brackets.


Higgins, C. 2004, ‘Moore turns up heat in Cannes’, Sydney Morning Herald, 18 May, viewed 18 May 2004, <http://www.smh.com.au/18May/Cannes/&gt;.    

Conference Paper

This reference type is used for citing a paper delivered during a conference. If you want to cite the whole conference proceedings, treat it as an edited book instead.    

Author Year, ‘Title of conference paper’, Conference Name, Publisher, Conference Location, Pages.    


Fisse, B. 2000, ‘Price exploitation and the new tax scheme’, Competition Law and Regulation, University of New South Wales Faculty of Law, Sydney Hilton Hotel, pp. 1-17.    

Lutz, T.M. 1986, ‘Evaluating periodic, episodic and Poisson models’, Geological Society of America 99th Annual Meeting Abstracts with Program, eds M. Taluv & J. Carson, Geological Society of America, Bozeman, MT, p. 677-89.    

World Wide Web

Use this reference type for a web site.    

Author Year, Title, Producer, Date viewed, <URL>.    

  • Author of the page if it is an article or Author is the person or organisation who owns the website.
  • Year is the year the webpage was last updated.
  • Producer (if known) is the person or organisation actually responsible for creating the website (leave out if not obvious)
  • Date viewed is the date you viewed the website and should be Day Month Year eg viewed 1 April 2004.
  • Put angle brackets around the URL, eg <http://www.science.org.au >


Robertson, P. 2001, Astronomy in the Deep Freeze, Australian Academy of Science, viewed 1 April 2004, <http://www.science.org.au/nova/065/065key.htm&gt;.    

Australian Electoral Commission 2002, Federal Election 2001 (Electoral Newsfile No.105 March 2002), Australian Electoral Commission, viewed 17 March 2004, <http://www.aec.gov.au/EF/105/&gt;.    

Motion picture & Audiovisual Material

This reference type is used for films, videorecordings, CD-ROMs, DVDs, cassettes.    

Title Year, Medium, Production Company, City    

  • Medium must be one of motion picture, videorecording, CD-ROMs, DVDs, cassettes.
  • Production company or the publisher.


Annie Hall 1977, motion picture, United Artists, Santa Monica, Calif.    

The Edge of the Possible 1998, videorecording, Film Art Doco Productions, Canberra.    

Attack on the Wires 2002, videorecording, BBC for the Open University, London.    

Television and Radio Program

This reference type is used for; television programs and radio programs    

Title Year, Medium, Series Title, TV or Radio Station, City, Broadcast date.    

  • Medium must be one of: television program, radio broadcast.
  • Series title if known.
  • Broadcast date (if known) is used for the broadcast day and must be Day Month.


Canberra Firestorm 2003, television program, Catalyst Television Program, ABC TV, Sydney, 3 March.    

Shock! Horror! 2004, television program, This is Modern Art 2, ABC TV, Sydney, 19 May.    

PM 2004, radio broadcast, ABC Radio 702AM, Sydney, 2 June.    

Podcasts viewed or downloaded online

Bibliography Format:

Title Year, Medium, Series Title, TV or Radio Station, City, Broadcast date, date viewed or downloaded, and <URL>    


Rose, J. 2009, Education the UK Way, audio podcast, EdPod Radio National, ABC Radio, Sydney, 1 October, viewed 18 November 2009    

Crawford, M. 2009, Shop Class as Soulcraft, audio podcast, FutureTense Radio National, ABC Radio, Sydney, 5 November, viewed 18 November 2009    

Small Town Salvation, 2009, video podcast, Compass Television Program, ABC TV, Sydney, 1 November, viewed 18 November 2009 <http://www.abc.net.au/compass/s2707046.htm>   &nbsp;

Return to the beginning of the Referencing Guide: Referencing using the Harvard System    

Related Articles  

Referencing Guide: Harvard, sourced from UTS Library website.